Treaties are agreements between two or more sovereign states or powers on any subject of mutual concern. A bilateral treaty or agreement is between two states. A multilateral treaty or agreement is among three or more states. A treaty can end a war, set fishing limits, arrange for international taxation, establish boundaries, limit chemical or biological testing, set up international exchanges of scholars or books, or any one of thousands of other topics. Treaties play major roles in any study of international law or foreign relations.
The Reference Section of the Main Library has a collection of texts of treaties from 1648, which is often regarded as the beginning date for the present system of nation-states, to the present. The following is a list of some of the major treaty sets and indexes available in the Section:
Collections of Texts of Treaties
Treaties in which the United States is a Party
United States Statutes at Large
The full-text of treaties entered into prior to 1950 is included in this series.
Treaties and Other International Agreements of the United States of America, 1776-1949 (Bevans)
Cited by the name of its compiler, Charles Bevans, this retrospective compilation is the definitive edition of U.S. treaties and agreements from 1776 through 1949.
United States Treaties and Other International Agreements, 1950- present (UST)
Cited as UST, this series continues where Bevans ends. Arrangement is chronological.
Hein's United States Treaties and Other International Agreements, Current Service (Hein's No. KAV)
This microfiche collection updates the bound volumes of United States Treaties and Other International Agreements.
Unperfected Treaties of the United States of America, 1776-1976
This collection contains the texts of treaties which have not received Senate approval or have not been ratified by the President.
Texts of major treaties, or information about them, are sometimes published in the CQ Weekly Reports, New York Times, Congressional Record, Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents, and Senate Executive Documents.
Consolidated Treaty Series, 1648-1918 (Consol. T.S.)
This series, which is also known as Parry's Consolidated Treaty Series, includes the text of every known international treaty from 1648 through 1918. This set is approximately 230 volumes in size. Treaties are arranged roughly chronologically. Detailed indexes to this collection are being published.
League of Nations Treaty Series, 1918-1945 (LNTS)
This collection, available on microfiche, through the LLMC collection, contains major international treaties entered into during the life of the League of Nations, approximately 1918-1945. Due to the non-participation of the United States in the League, some United States treaties are not included unless the other party or parties to the treaty were League members.
United Nations Treaty Series, 1946 - present (UNTS)
This collection, also available on microfiche, through the LLMC collection, contains treaties entered into by any member of the UN, beginning in about 1946.
Indexes to Treaties
Indexes to Multilateral Treaties
Index to Multilateral Treaties, 16th century through 1963
This set consists of a chronological list of multi-party international agreements from the sixteenth century through 1963. It provides citations to the full text of treaties and is indexed by subject and region.
Multilateral Treaties Deposited with the Secretary General
This is a comprehensive annual list of signatures, ratifications, accessions, etc. relating to multilateral treaties deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations. Each successive issue cumulates information about the status of each treaty.
World Treaty Index. 2nd ed., 1900-1970
This set indexes nearly every known treaty between approximately 1900 and 1970. It indexes treaties by country, subject, date, etc. Citations are given to the location of the full text of the treaties.
Indexes to Treaties in which the United States is a Party
GPO: Government Publications Online
Slip treaties are indexed as they are published.
Current Treaty Index Service
Guide to Treaties in Force (TIF)
TIF is an annual list of treaties to which the U.S. has become a party and which are in force as of the date of the compilation. References are cited to sources containing the full text of the treaty.
The following are some of the materials relating to Native-American treaties that are available in the BLG Section:
Ratified Indian Treaties, 1722-1869
This microfilm set includes the text of all Indian treaties during this period. It includes an index by tribe and place. The treaties are arranged in chronological order.
Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties (Kappler)
Cited by the name of its compiler, Charles J. Kappler, this set includes treaties, as well as laws, proclamations, and executive orders relating to Indian affairs. It was originally published in five volumes. (The original five volumes were also published as part of the Congressional Serial Set.) Two volumes updating the basic set were published later.
United States Statutes at Large
Indian treaties, effective between 1778 and 1845, were compiled in volume 7 of the United States Statutes at Large. Each subsequent volume contains the treaties for the years covered by the volume.
Felix Cohen's Handbook of Federal Indian Law
This is a basic guide to Indian Law.
List of Indian Treaties
This memorandum and accompanying information was published as a committee print of the House Committee on the Interior and Insular Affairs. It indexes the Indian treaties included in the United States Statutes at Large volumes. It includes a chronological index of treaties and an alphabetical index by tribe, giving the date and citation to the United States Statutes at Large. It also includes an alphabetical index to Kappler's Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties. In addition, a short bibliography is provided. The library has this item on microfiche.
Formal negotiation and publication of treaties between the United States Government and American Indian Nations was discontinued by an Act of Congress on February 16, 1869. Since that time, however, agreements have continued to be made.
For further information on Native-American Treaties, search the Broward County Library's online Library Catalog ( www.broward.org/library) by performing a keyword search using the following terms: Indians of North America - Treaties or Indians of North America - Laws, Legal Status and by searching the names of specific Indian Tribes, (e.g., Seminole Indians - Treaties).
A good tool for finding references to additional Native-American treaties is the LLMC Sourcebook: Native American Collection. If the Reference Section does not have the needed resources, an Interlibrary Loan request may be made. Ask the librarians for assistance in doing this.