CHECKLIST OF THE EXHIBITION

DRAPETOMANIA
A Disease Called Freedom

All items in the exhibition belong to Derrick Joshua Beard.
When appropriate, the format and date appear first, followed by the artist/author/ subject, title, edition statement, place of publication, publisher, date of publication, pagination, size (height by width by depth), and notes.

COVER
# 5

HAITI

#1
[Pamphlet, 1791?]
DÉPUTATION: De 24 Membres de l’Assemblée législative au Roi. – Discours prononcé au Roi au nom de l’Assemblée Nationale. – Réponse du Roi. – Arrivée à la barre, des six Députés de l’assemblée coloniale de Saint-Domingue. – Nouvelle. – Paris: De l’Imprimerie des Patriotes, 1791? – 4 p. ; 19 x 12 cm.

[“Les six députés, envoyés par l’assemblée coloniale de Saint-domingue, sont introduits à la barre: ils sont le récit des désastres de la colonie”... – An account of an uprising that lead to the Haitian Revolution – p. 3-4]

#2
[Periodical, 1818]
Darfour, F.
L’Avertisseur haytïen: journal politique, commercial et litteraire
/ Rédigé par F. Darfour. –Port-au-Prince; 1818.

[No. XIV, 16 p. ; 21.5 x 15.5 cm. – “Ce Journal parait les 8 et 23 du mois, par format de 16 pages. La moitié d l’abonnement se paie d’avance. S’adresser au Rédacteur, Rue du Centre, maison de Mile. Camille.” – On cover]

#3
[Book, 1824]
Bouvet de Cressé, Auguste Jean Baptiste
Histoire de la catastrophe de Saint-Domingue avec la correspondance des généaux Leclerc (beau-frèré de Bonaparte), Henry-Christophe (depuis roi d’Haïti), Hardy, Vilton, etc., certifiéé conforme aux originaux déposés aux archives, par le lieutenant général Rouanez jeune, secrétaire d’état / publiées par A. J. B. Bouvet de Cressé. – Paris: Librairie de Peytieux, 1824. – [2], vii, 156 p.; 19 cm.

[This copy lacks pp. 99-156. – “Avertissement de l’auteur” signed: J...e Ch.......e [i.e., Juste Chanlatte] – PREFACE: “Je ne suis point auteur de l’ouvarge que je publie; j’en ai seulement coordonné les diverses parties et soigné la rédaction.” – p. [v].– CONTENTS: Chapitre premier: De l’origine des Nègres, et de la unité du type primitif de la race humaine. – II: De l’esclavage, et da la prétendue infériorité morale des Nègres. – III: Esquisse historique. Expédition des Français, aux ordres de Leclerc, beau-frère de Bonaparte, contre Sant-Domingue. Leur arrivée: Quelles en sont les suites. – IV: Événemens subséquens au départ des Français. Mouvement du peuple. Catastrophe qui en résulte. – V: A tous les hommes vertueux qui ont plaidé notre cause, ou qui se sont montrés justes et généreux envers nous. – VI: Réflexions générales. Conclusion. – VII: Correspondance des généraux Leclerc, beau-frère de Bonaparte, Henry Christophe (depuis roi d’Haïti), Hardy, Vilton, Rouanez jeune, etc. – Introduction. – Correspondance. – Pressed paper binding]

#4
[Book, 1859]
Dhormoys, Paul, 1829-
Une visite chez Soulouque: souvenirs d’un voyage dans l’île d’Haïti.
– Paris: Librairie Nouvelle, 1859. – 275 p. ; 18.5 x 12.5 cm.

[CONTENTS: Dédicace. – Avant-Propos. – Soulouque tel qu’on se le figure. – Les dominicains tels qu’ils sont.– Un vengeance de Faustin. – Conclusion. – Paper binding]

#5
[Book, 1873]
Hazard, Samuel, 1834-1876
Santo Domingo, past and present, with a glance at Hayti
/ by Samuel Hazard. – New York: Harper & Brothers, 1873. – xxix, 511 + [2] p. of adv. : ill. front., 2 maps (1 fold) ; 21 x 14.5 cm.

[CONTENTS: p. [xi]-xvi. –ILLUSTRATIONS: p. [xvii]. – LIST OF SMALL ENGRAVINGS: p. [xix]-xx. – THE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SANTO DOMINGO AND HAYTI: p. [xxi]-xxix. – Stamped cloth pictorial binding].

#6
[Textile, ca. 1890]
Général Hippolyte. Présidént, 1890
Dyed red and black cotton scarf
67 x 73 cm.
[Portrait busts of Général Hippolyte and sixteen previous Presidents of Haiti]

#7
[Book, 1911]
[Légitime, François Dénis, 1842-1935]
La République d’Haïti et les races africaines en général: Premier Congrès de races tenu à Londres du 26 au 29 juillet 1911.
– Port-au-Prince, Haiti: Imprimerie de l’Abeille, 1911. – 187 p. ; 20.5 x 14 cm.

[CONTENTS: Avant-Propos. – Comité international prèparatoire. – Objet et Nature du Congrès. – Organisation et Programme. – Ouverture Solennelle du Congrès. – Deuxième Séance. – Troisième Séance. – Sixième Séance. – Septième Séance. Huitième Séance (Résolution et Voeux; Fêtes, réceptions et Conférences. – Conférence sur la genèse et la vitalité des haïtiens (Traduction Anglaise). – Compte-Rendu de la Conférences. – Mémoire (Haïti, son passé et son avenir. Considération générale sur le peuple et le Gouvernement Haïtien. – Les Races Noires devant la Science et la Conscience Moderne. – Résumé et conclusion. – Pièces annexes. – Pressed paper binding]


SLAVERY

#8
[Book plates, 18th century]
[Four unidentified, hand-colored book plates depicting scenes of slavery in the New World?]
Paper, ink, watercolor. 17 x 10.5 cm.

#9
[Book, 1790]
Equiano, Olaudah, b. 1745
The interesting narrative of the life of Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavus Vassa, the African
/ written by himself. – 3rd ed., enlarged. – London: Printed for, and sold by, the author, 1790. – viii, [12], 359 p. : 1 folded ill.; 18 x 11 cm.

[Contemporary binding. – CONTENTS: Chap. I.– The author’s account of his country, their manners and customs, etc. – Chap. II. – The author’s birth and parentage–His being kidnapped with his sister–Horrors of a slave ship. – Chap. III. – The author is carried to Virginia–Arrives in England–His wonder at a fall of snow. – Chap. IV. – A particular account of the celebrated engagement between Admiral Boscawen and Monsieur Le Clue. – Chap. V. – Various interesting instances of oppression, cruelty, and extortion. – Chap. VI. – Favourable change in the author’s situation–Surprised by two earthquakes–He commences merchant with three-pence. – Chap. VII. – The author’s disgust at the West Indies–Forms schemes to obtain his freedom. – Chap. VIII. – Three remarkable dreams–The author shipwrecked on the Bahama-bank. – Chap. IX. – The author arrives at Martinico–Meets with new difficulties, and sails for England. – Chap. X. – Some account of the manner of the author’s conversion to the faith of Jesus Christ. – Chap. XI. – Picks up eleven miserable men at sea in returning to England. – Chap. XII. – Different transactions of the author’s life–Petition to the Queen–Conclusion]

[The first published account of the life of a free African American. In the book, Vassa hopes to “...excite in your August assemblies a sense of compassion for the miseries which the Slave Trade has entailed on my unfortunate countrymen.” Enslaved when he was 11, he was given the name of Gustavus Vassa by his first master, Captain Pascal. For 30 years Vassa sailed with various captains until he gained his freedom from Philadelphia Quaker Robert King]

#11
[Broadside, 1817]
ONE HUNDRED DOLLARS REWARD. Runaway from my plantation the night of the Sixteenth, June, Eighteen Hundred and Twelve, 1812, a negro man ... 25 years of age, five feet nine inches high ... Parish of Point Coripera (?) [Louisiana], 13th March 1817, [signed] Thomas Ker.
Paper, ink
23 x 19 cm.

#12
[Slave collar, ca. 1820]
[Spiked slave collar]
Steel
27 x 27 x 7.5 cm.

#13
[Will, 1823]
Mills, Vincent
In the name of God, Amen, I Vincent Mills of the City of Mobile in the State of Alabama, do make, and publish this my last Will and Testament, in manner, and form following that is to say, In the first place I give, and bequeath to Marie Louise a free woman of colour, a lot of ground situate on Conter Street . . . April 21, 1823 . . .

32 x 20.5 cm. Paper, ink

#14
[Book, 1834]
Bourne, George, 1780-1845
Picture of slavery in the United States of America.
– Middletown, Conn.: Edwin Hunt, 1834. – 227, i.e., [228] p. : ill. ; 16 x 10 cm.

[“The picture of American slavery is inscribed to every member of the Anti-Slavery Societies, and to all other philanthropists who are opposed to man-stealing...” – p. [3] – ILLUSTRATIONS: #1, Title Page–A woman exchanged for a Ram and Sheep; #2, Selling Females by the pound; #3, Family amalgamation among the Men-stealers; #4, A slave Plantation; #5, Flogging American Women; #6, Ladies whipping Girls; #7, Exchanging Citizens for Horses; #8, Auction at Richmond; #9, Kidnapping; #10, Torturing American Citizens; #11, Tanning a Boy. – Cloth binding].

#15
[Book, 1839]
American slavery as it is: testimony of a thousand witnesses. – New York: Published by the American Anti-Slavery Society, 1839. – 224 p. ; 23 x 15 cm.

[Index: p. 210-224. – Contemporary binding. – CONTENTS: Introduction. – Personal Narratives, Part I. – Privations of the Slaves. – Personal Narratives, Part II. – Testimony of Cruelty Inflected upon Slaves. – Punishments. – Personal Narratives, Part III. – Objections Considered]

[ADVERTISEMENT TO THE READER: A majority of the facts and testimony contained in this work rests upon the authority of SLAVEHOLDERS, whose names and residences are given to the public, as vouchers for the truth of their statements. That they should utter falsehoods, for the sake of proclaiming their own infamy, is not probable. – p. [iii]

#16
[Printed receipt, 1847]
$500. Richmond, July 10th, 1847. Received of ... Griffin ... being in full for the purchase of two Negro Slaves named Mary and her son Isaac... [Signed] James T. Blakeney.
Paper, ink
8 x 17.5 cm.

#17
[Carved box top, 1845?]
[Half of coconut shell with floral design and face, Oak Alley Plantation, Louisiana]
Coconut shell
14 x 7 cm.

#18
[Carte-de-visite, 1850-60?]
[Woman with mortar and pestle, South Carolina]?
Photograph
10 x 6 cm.

#19
[Ambrotype, 1850-60?]
[Portrait of an enslaved boy, Virginia, with two white children]
Cased image, 1/4 plate
12 x 9.5 cm.

#20
[Periodical, 1854]
The Georgia Blister and Critic: a Monthly Journal, devoted to the development of Southern medical literature, and the exposition of the diseases and physical peculiarities of the Negro race / by H. A. Ramsay, M.D. – Atlanta, Georgia: Printed at Kay’s Mammoth Job Office, 1854. – Vol. 1, September, 1854, No. 7., p. [153]-176.

[(Continued from August Number). Cartwright on the Diseases and Physical Peculiarities of the Negro Race. “DRAPETOMANIA, or the disease causing slaves to run away. Drapetomania is from * * * * * a runaway slave, and * * * mad or crazy. It is unknown to our medical authorities, although its diagnostic symptom, the absconding from service, is well known to our planters and overseers, as it was to the ancient Greeks, who expressed by the single word * * * * * the fact of absconding, and the relation that the fugit[i]ve held to the person he fled from. I have added to the word meaning runaway slave, another Greek term, to express the disease of the mind causing him to abscond. ...”]

#21
[Slave rental receipts, 1855-60]
[Three slave rental receipts]
Paper, ink
7 x 20 cm.; 14.5 x 19.5 cm.; 25.5 x 20 cm.

[It was common practice for masters to lease slaves to manufacturers who paid the slave for his work. Slaves entered into contracts that enabled them to earn money, typically divided between the slave and his master, which could be used to purchase freedom for themselves or family members]

#22
[Envelope, 1859]
Hector Davis, Auctioneer for the Sale of Negroes, Franklin ... in Richmond, Va. – Embossed seal on verso of stamped, addressed envelope, 1859.
Paper, ink. 8 x 14 cm.

#23
[Cabinet card, 1860?]
Whipped at post
Photograph. 16.5 x10.5 cm.
[Whipping post, two men in elevated stockade]

#24
[Albumen print, 1860-70?]
[Weighing cotton with enslaved African cotton workers]
Hand-colored photograph
10.5 x 17.5 cm.

#25
[Auction broadside, 1860]
List of an Uncommonly Prime and Orderly Gang of 89 Negroes Accustomed to the Culture of Rice, Cotton, and Provisions, amongst them are VALUABLE CARPENTERS, will be sold at PUBLIC AUCTION by P.J. PROCHER & BAYA, on Monday, the 6th Day of February, 1860, at Eleven O’clock a.m. at the Mart, in Chalmers Street.
Charleston, S.C.: Walter, Evans & Co., Printers, 3 Broad Street.
Paper, ink
30 x 23 cm. (framed)

#26
[Cabinet card, 1861-63?]
[Civil War lynching, South Carolina?]
Photograph
11 x 16.5 cm.


#25

#27
[Photograph, ca. 1870]
[Three Ku Klux Klan members in uniform]
Tintype
9.5 x 8 cm

#28
[Photograph, 1870?]
[Roustabouts on a New Orleans Wharf]
Albumen print
27 x 31 cm. (framed)

#29
[Photograph, 1879?]
467. Oyster and Fish Women, Charleston, S.C.
Albumen print

23 x 28 cm. (framed)

#30
[Basket, ca.1900]
[Small basket]
Reed, string
32 x 32 x 10.5 cm

#31
[Book, 1900]
Carroll, Charles, 1849-
“The Negro a beast”, or “In the image of God”: The reasoner of the age, the revelator of the century! The Bible as it is! The Negro and his relation to the human family! The Negro a beast, but created with articulate speech, and hands, that he may be of service to his master–the White man / by Chas. Carroll. – St. Louis, Mo.: American Book and Bible House, 1900. – 382 p. : [10] ill. ; 21.5 x 16 cm.

[CONTENTS: Chapter I: The Formation of the Negro and other beasts–then the Negro on the sixth day. – Chapter II: Biblical and scientific facts demonstrating that the Negro is not an offspring of the Adamic family. – Chapter III: The theory of evolution exploded; man was created a man, and did not develop from an ape. – Chapter IV: Convincing Biblical and scientific evidence that the Negro is not of the human family. – Chapter V: Cain’s offspring soulless, as they were of amalgamated flesh. – Chapter VI: Red, yellow and brown skin denotes amalgamation of the human family with the Beast–the Negro. – Chapter VII: That the Beast of the Bible is a biped animal, and not a quadruped, is proven by the Bible. – Chapter VIII: It was not god’s original plan that His Son should be crucified, but amalgamation and disobedience of the human family made it imperative. – Chapter IX: Ignorance of the Bible, and continued atheistic teachings have led astray the masses, relative to God’s creation of Man. – Chapter X: The Bible and Divine Revelation, as well as reason, all teach that the Negro is not human.

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS: Adam and Eve the morning of the creation of man, p. 8; Is the White man in the image of God? If he is can the Negro be also? p. 44; Does “like beget like”? If so, could White parents beget a Negro child? p. 74; Was Christ a Negro? If so, God is a Negro as he is the father of Christ, p. 104; Was the first offspring of Adam and Eva a Negro, or was any of their children Negroes? p. 138; The Beast and the Virgin, or the Sin of the Century, p. 164; Did Nature blunder, or was God mistaken when he said “like begets like”, p. 196; Will you next child be a Negro? If the Negro sprung from Adam and Eve, then it may happen, p. 226; The Egg of Creation. Can you get a Duck from a Turkey egg, or a Dove from the egg of a Crow? p. 268; Natural results of amalgamation, brought about by treating the Negro as a human being, p. 338.

Red cloth binding. Cover stamped with title and stereotypic bust of an Afro-American. Decorated endpapers]

[PUBLISHER’S ANNOUNCEMENT: “In placing this book...upon the American market, we do so knowing that there will be many learned men who will take issue with us, but...we are also convinced that...it will be to the minds of the American people like unto the voice of God from the clouds appealing unto Paul on his way to Damascus.” ... We are placing this book before the reading public as a witness to be questioned and cross-examined by the world, and if its pages will not stand the righteous attack of criticism, then we are willing for its arguments to be trailed in the dust of oblivion.” ... – The Publishers – p. [4]

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