Marvellous counties and lands
Who Discovered Florida?
Historical Data Concerning Florida
The Gulf Stream
Collecting Old Maps
Map Printing Methods
Latitude and Logitude
Exhibition Checklist




4 to Quarto, a size of paper (8 x12”)
8 to Octavo, a size of paper (5x8”)
Astrolabe A circular instrument used to observe and calculate the position of celestial bodies
Border The lines drawn around a map. Often decorated or containing latitude or longitude numbers
Cartography The science of making maps.
Cartouche Label or information surrounded by a border. Often decorative.
Centerfold Where the map is folded vertically down the center, or, two pieces of paper joined to make a double-page map in an atlas.
Chain lines Watermark-like lines perpendicular to laid lines in a sheet of hand-made or laid paper.
Compass rose An illustration on a map or chart that shows the different points of direction. North is usually indicated by a little longer line with a point.
d. Died.
Deckle edge Untrimmed edge of handmade paper.
Dead reckoning The method of calculating a ship’s position by attempting to measure course and speed.
Edition The whole number of prints of a work, such as a map, published on one time.
Engraving Intaglio cutting of grooves, usually into cooper or steel, to hold the ink for transfer to the paper that is pressed onto it.
F. Folio
Facsimile A copy of a map or image.
fl. Flourished.
Folio A large sheet of paper folded one time down the center. Usually 17 x 24 inches.
Gore Canoe-shaped section of a globe surface on which a portion of a map is drawn. Gores, glued to the surface of a globe, show an image of the world.
Inset Small image within the border of a larger map.
Issue Similar to edition.
Laid lines The smaller parallel lines at right angles to the larger chain lines in handmade paper.
Latitude The lines running east and west on a map or globe grid.
Lithography Printing from stone with the image on the surface. Used for making reproductions, as in photolithography.
Longitude The north and south lines running from pole to pole on a map or globe grid.
Loxodromes Lines on a map that cross each longitude line at the same angle.
Manuscript Hand-painted or hand-drawn map. Usually one-of-a-kind.
Margin The unprinted edge of the paper outside the map border.
Octavo A piece of paper folded in half three times, i.e., half as large as a quarto. Usually 5 x 8 inches. Abbreviated 8 to.
Original A map printed from the plate before alteration or destruction of the plate.
Panoramic view A view of an area, settlement or city from an oblique angle above the horizon.
Plate The copper or steel on which the image is engraved.
Plate mark Indentation on the edge of the paper outside the border from the pressure of the paper on the engraved plate during printing.
Portolan chart or Portolan A manuscript chart of the fourteenth century or later, usually having rhumb lines and shoreline details and names.
Projection The curvature of the earth depicted on a flat surface map.
Quarto A piece of paper folded in half twice, i.e., half as large as a folio. Usually 8 x 12 inches. Abbreviated 4 to.
Recto The front of a map or image.
Reproduction A copy of a map or image.
Restrike A map made later from the original plate.
State All maps printed from one plate. When the plate is changed, the map is a different state.
Topography The detailed delineation of natural and man-made features of a region on maps and charts.
Verso The back of a map. Sometime text is on the verso, especially if the map is from a book.
Wall map Large map meant to be hung on the wall and not bound into an atlas.
Watermark A design in the paper identifying the maker and/or date made. Made by wire in the grid rack on which handmade paper is laid.
Wind rose Star-shaped, multi-pointed decorative design showing the directions of the wind. Later adapted to become a compass rose.
Woodcut Cameo design cut out of wood on which the ink sticks to the raised surface to be transferred to the paper during printing.
Wove paper Paper made on a fine grid, giving it an almost woven appearance when held to the light.
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A bibliography has been provided for readers interested in pursuing the subject of maps. Works most directly related to historic maps of Florida are Joseph H. Fitzgerald's indispensable exhibition catalog Changing Perceptions: Mapping the Shape of Florida, 1502-1982, and John Matthews Baxter, "An Annotated Checklist of Florida Maps." More scholarly treatments are David O. True's "Some Early Maps Relating to Florida," and William P. Cumming's The Southeast in Early Maps, recently revised and enlarged by Louis De Vorsey, Jr. Many of the maps cited are reproduced and treated more thoroughly in the following works: Philip Burton 1996; William Cumming 1998; Kenneth Nebenzahl 1990; Walter W. Ristow 1985; Rodney Shirley 1983; and Seymour Schwartz and Ralph Ehrenberg 1980.

Arciniegas, Germán. 1978. Amerigo and the New World. The Life & Times of Amerigo Vespucci. New York: Octagon Books.

Baxter, John Matthews. 1941. An Annotated Checklist of Florida Maps. Tequesta. 1: 107-115.

Bidini, Silvio. 1975. Thinkers and Tinkers. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.

Biblioteca Nacional de España. 2001. Tesoros de la Cartografía Española. Madrid: XIX Congreso Internacional de Historia de la Cartografía.

Boston, Barbara. 1939. The Route of De Soto: Delisle's Interpretation. Mid-America, 21: 277-297.

Boston, Barbara. 1941. The 'De Soto Map. Mid-America. 23:240-245.

Burton, Philip D. 1996. The Mapping of North America. Rickmansworth, England: Raleigh Publications.

Carter, Clarence. 1917. The Beginnings of British West Florida. The Mississippi Valley Historical Review. 4: 320.

Carter, Clarence E. 1958. The Territorial Papers of the United States, Volume XXIII, The Territory of Florida, 1824-1828. Washington, D. C.: The National Archives.

Claussen, Martin, and Herman R. Friis. 1941. Descriptive Catalog of Maps Published by Congress, 1817-1843. Washington, D. C.

Cortesão, Armando, and A. Teixeira da Mota. 1960. Portugaliae Monumenta Cartographica. 6 vols. Lisbon.

Cumming, William P. 1963. The Parreus Map (1562) of French Florida. Imago Mundi 17: 27-40.

Cumming, William P. 1998. The Southeast in Early Maps. 3rd ed. Revised and Enlarged by Louis De Vorsey, Jr. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press.

Cumming, W. P., R. A.Skelton, and D. B. Quinn. 1972. The Discovery of North America. New York: American Heritage Press.

Delanglez, Jean. 1943. The Sources of the Delisle Map of America, 1703. Mid-America. 25:275-298.

Delanglez, Jean. 1944. The Voyage of Louis Joillet to Hudson Bay in 1679. Mid-America. 26:229.

De Vorsey, Jr., Louis. 1971. De Brahms's Report of the General Survey in the Southern District of North America. Columbia: University of South Carolina.

De Vorsey, Jr., Louis. 1975. La Florida Revealed: The De Brahm Surveys of British East Florida, 1765-1771. In: Ralph E. Ehrenberg (ed.), Pattern and Process: Research in Historical Geography. Washington, D. C.: Howard University Press. 87-102.

De Vorsey, Jr., Lewis. 1992. Silent Witnesses: Native American Maps. The Georgia Review. 66:716-717.

Fitzgerald, Joseph H. 1984. Changing Perceptions: Mapping the Shape of Florida, 1502 - 1982. Miami: Historical Museum of Southern Florida.

Fitzgerald, Joseph H. 1992. Quest for the Indies: Routes of Exploration. Miami: Historical Museum of Southern Florida.

George, Wilma. 1969. Animals & Maps. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Harley, A. F. 1930-31. Bernard Romans' Map of Florida Engraved by Paul Revere, and Other Early Maps in the Library of the Florida Historical Society. Florida Historical Society Quarterly. 9:47-57.

Harley, J. B. 1990. Maps and the Columbian Encounter. Milwaukee: University of Wisconsin- Milwaukee.

Harrisse, Henry. 1961. The Discovery of North America. A Critical, Documentary, and Historic Investigation. Reprint. Amsterdam.

Hébert, John R. 1987. Vicente Sebastián Pintado, Surveyor General of Spanish West Florida. Imago Mundi. 39:50- 72.

Hébert, John R., and Anthony P. Mullan. 1999. The Luso-Hispanic World in Maps: A Selective Guide to Manuscript Maps to 1900 in the Collections of the Library of Congress. Washington: Library of Congress, 1999.

Holzheimer, Arthur, and David Buisseret. 1992. The "Ramusio" Map of 1534, A Facsimile Edition. Chicago: The Newberry Library.

Kupperman, Karen Ordahl. 1997. A Continent Revealed: Assimilation of the Shape and Possibilities of North America's East Coast, 1524-1610. In: John Logan Allen (ed.), North American Exploration. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. 1:344-399.

Lowery, Woodbury. 1959. The Spanish Settlements Within The Present Limits of the United States. Reprint. New York.

Martin, Sidney Walter. 1944. The Public Domain in Territorial Florida. The Journal of Southern History. 10:174-187.

Merkel, Donald E. 1974. Colonel Butler and the Public Land Survey of Florida (1824-1849). Surveying and Mapping. 34:331-336.

Mollat du Jourdin, Michel, and Monique de La Roncière. 1984. Sea Charts of the Early Explorers 13th to 17th Century. New York: Thames and Hudson.

Morison, Samuel Eliot. 1974. The European Discovery of America: The Southern Voyages, A. D. 1492-1616. New York: Oxford University Press.

Morris, Allen. 1974. Florida Place Names. Coral Gables, Florida: University of Miami Press.

National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 1998. Florida from Space.

Nebenzahl, Kenneth. 1990. Atlas of Columbus and the Great Discoveries. Chicago: Rand McNally.

Nelson, Harold L. 1955. Military Roads for War and Peace--1791-1836. Military Affairs. 19: 1-14.

Nunn, George E., and Clinton R. Edwards. 1992. The Geographical Conceptions of Columbus. Expanded ed. Milwaukee: The University of Wisconsin- Milwaukee.

Oberhummer, Eugen. 1909. Leonardo Da Vinci and the Art of the Renaissance in its Relations to Geography. The Geographical Journal. 33:542-544.

Peck, Douglas T. 1995. The Yucatan: Spanish Gateway to the New World. Bradenton, Florida: Privately Printed.

Peck, Douglas T. 2001. The Depiction of Florida on the Early Conte Ottomano Freducci Map. The Portolan. 50:24-27.

Reinhartz, Dennis. 1997. The Cartographer and the Literati- Herman Moll and His Intellectual Circle. Lewiston, NY: The Edwin Mellen Press.

Reinhartz, Dennis., and Oakah L. Jones. 1997. Hacia el Norte! The Spanish Entrada into North America, 1513-1549. In: John Logan Allen (ed.), North American Exploration. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. 1:240-291.

Ristow, Walter W. 1962. John Melish and His Map of the United States. The Library of Congress Quarterly Journal of Current Acquisitions. 19:159-178.

Ristow, Walter W. 1985. American Maps and Mapmakers: Commercial Cartography in the Nineteenth Century. Detroit: Wayne State University Press.

Ste. Claire, Dana. 1997. A History of Florida through New World Maps: Borders of Paradise. Gainesville: University Presses of Florida.

Sauer, Carl O. 1971. Sixteenth Century North America: The Land and the People as Seen by the Europeans. Berkeley, Los Angeles: University of California Press.

Seller, John R. and Patricia Molen Van Ee. 1981. Maps and Chart of North America and the West Indies 1750-1789. Washington: Library of Congress.

Schwartz, Seymour I., and Ralph E. Ehrenberg. 1980. The Mapping of America. New York: Harry N. Abrams.

Shea. John G. 1886. Ancient Florida. In: Justin Winsor (ed.), Narrative and Critical History of America. New York: Houghton, Mifflin and Company. 2:231-282.

Shirley. Rodney W. 1983. The Mapping of the World. Early Printed World Maps 1472 - 1700. London: The Holland Press.

Tanner, Henry S. 1823. A New American Atlas Containing Maps of the Several States of the North American Union. Philadelphia.

Tanner, Henry S. 1829. Memoir on the Recent Surveys, Observations, and Internal Improvements in the United States . . . Intended to Accompany His New Map of the United States. Philadelphia.

Tooley, R. V. 1990. Maps amd Mapmakers. New York: Dorset Press.

True, David O. 1976. Some Early Maps Relating to Florida. Imago Mundi. 11:73-84.

Vignoles, Charles. 1977. Observations Upon the Floridas. Facsimile Reproduction of the 1823 Edition with an Introduction and Index by John Hebron Moore. Gainesville: The University of Florida.

Weddle, Robert S. 1997. Early Spanish Exploration: The Caribbean, Central America, and the Gulf of Mexico. In John Logan Allen (ed.), North American Exploration. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. 1: 189-240.

Winsor, Justin. 1886. The Early Cartography of the Gulf of Mexico and Adjacent Parts. In Justin Winsor (ed.), Narrative and Critical History of America. New York: Houghton, Mifflin and Company. 2: 217-230.

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Personal name Index
Aitken, R., #23
Bartram, William, #24
Blaeu, Guiljelmus, SEE: Blaeu, Willem Janszoon
Blaeu, Joan, #15
Blaeu, Willem Janszoon, #15
Blake, Jacob E., #32
Brahm, William Gerard De, SEE: De Braham, William Gerard
Broward, Hortense, #43
Broward, Napoleon Bonaparte, #41, 43
Bruff, Joseph Goldsborough, #34
Bry, Theodore de, #11
Cabeza de Vaca, Alvar Núñez, SEE: Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, Alvar
Cantino, Alberto, #3
Chaves, Geronimo, #10
Cosa, Juan de la, SEE: La Cosa, Juan de
da Vince, Leonardo, SEE: Leonardo, da Vinci
De Brahm, William Gerard, #21
de Bry, Theodore, SEE: Bry, Theodore de
de la Cosa, Juan, SEE: La Cosa, Juan de
Delahaye, Guillaume Nicholas, #22
Delamarche, Charles François, #22
de Laudonnière, René Goulaine, SEE: Laudonnière, René Goulaine de
de Mendoza, Diego Hurtado, SEE: Hurtado de Mendoza, Diego
de Morgues, Jacques le Moyne, SEE: Le Moyne de Morgues, Jacques
de Narváez, Pánfilo, SEE: Narváez, Pánfilo de
de Vaca, Alvar Núñez Cabeza, SEE: Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, Alvar
de Vaugondy, Didier Robert, SEE: Robert de Vaugondy, Didier
de Vaugondy, Gilles Robert, SEE: Robert de Vaugondy, Gilles
Elliot, F.C., #44
Franklin, Benjamin, #23
Gordon, Patrick, #20
Goulaine de Laudonnière, René, SEE: Laudonnière, René Goulaine de
Hol, Lienhart, #1
Homann, Johann Baptist, #18
Hurtado de Mendoza, Diego, #10
Jackson, Andrew, #43
Kretschmer, Konrad, #5, 6, 7
La Cosa, Juan de, #2
Laudonnière, René Goulaine de, #11
Le Moyne de Morgues, Jacques, #11
Leonardo, da Vinci, #5
Llwyd, Humphrey, #12
Lotter, Tobias Conrad, #19
Lucas, F., #27, 28
McClelland, D., #34
McConnell, #44
Mackay, John, #32
Mendoza, Diego Hurtado de, SEE: Hurtado de Mendoza, Diego
Menex, John, #20
Morgues, Jacques le Moyne de, SEE: Le Moyne de Morgues, Jacques
Moyne de Morgues, Jacques le, SEE: Le Moyne de Morgues, Jacques
Münster, Sebastian, #8, 9
Narváez, Pánfilo de, #11
Nelson, Henry Loomis, #37, 38
Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, Alvar, #11
Ogden, Henry Alexander, #37, 38
Ogilby, John, #17
Ortelius, Abraham, #10, 13
Ottens, R., #19.5
Pitteri, Giovanni Marco, #25
Poupard, James, #23
Robert de Vaugondy, Didier, #22
Robert de Vaugondy, Gilles, #22
Russell, J., #26
Schnitzer, Johann, #1
Scott, Winfield, #29
Searcy, I.G., #30
Senex, Mr., SEE: Menex, John
Stearns, M.L., #35, 36
Stone, William James, #32
Tanner, Henry Schenck, #29
Taylor, Zachary, #32
Vaca, Alvar Núñez Cabeza de, SEE: Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, Alvar
Vaugondy, Didier Robert de, SEE: Robert de Vaugondy, Didier
Vaugondy, Gilles Robert de, SEE: Robert de Vaugondy, Gilles
Vespucci, Amerigo, #4
Vignoles, Charles Blacker, #29
Vince, Leonardo de, SEE: Leonardo, da Vinci
Vinckeboons, Joan, #14, 16
Vindel, Augustæ
Vingboons, Joan, SEE: Vinckeboons, Joan
Waldseemüller, Martin, #4
Williams, J. Lee, #31
Williams, M.A., #35, 36
Wytfliet, Corneille, #12
Zatta, Antonio, #25

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Publisher and other Corporate Name Index
American Heritage Publishing Co., #2
American Philosophical Society, #23
B. M. Whitlock, Publisher, #37, 38
Beck & Pauli (Lithographers), #39
Buek, G.H. & Co., N.Y. (Lithographers), SEE: G.H. Buek & Co., N.Y. (Lithographers)
C.S. Hammond & Co. (New York), #40
Ernest Leroux éditeur
Florida. State Department of Agriculture, #46
Florida. Surveyor General’s Office, 35, 36
Fort Lauderdale News and Sun Sentinel, Photography Department, #41
Ft. Lauderdale Sentinel, #43
G. & W. Endicott, #33
G. H. Buek & Co., N.Y. (Lithographers), #37, 38
Gellschaft für Erdkunde zu Berlin, #5, 6, 7
Greene & McGowran, #31
Hammond, C.S. & Co. (New York), SEE: C.S. Hammond & Co. (New York)
Institut für Iberoamerika-Kunde, #5, 6, 7
J. and P. Knapton, #20
J. Johnson, #24
James and Johnson, #24
New York Public Library, Map Division, #2
Norris, Wellge & Co., #39
Nuttal, Fisher & Dixon, #26
Real Estate Sales Co., Inc. (Miami, FL), #44
Record Company (St. Augustine, FL), #46
Schuler-Verlag, #1
United States. Army. Corps of Topographical Engineers, #34
United States. Army of the South, #32
United States. Quartermaster’s Department, #37, 38
United States. Topographical Bureau, #32
Whitlock, B.M., SEE: B.M. Whitlock, Publisher
Young & Delleker, #27, 28

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Title Index
America: being the latest, and most accurate description of the New World, #17
The army of the United States, #37
Artillery, Infantry, Dragoon [full dress], 1835-1850, XVII, #37
Artillery, Infantry, Mounted Rifles, Light Artillery, 1855-1858, XVV, #38
Atlas universel, #22
[Carte de la nouvelle France = New France], #19.5
A chart of the Gulf Stream, #23
A chart of the West Indies, #26
County gets picture of N.B. Broward, #43
Cvliacanae, Americae regionis, descriptio…, #13
Das erst General-inhaltend die beschzeibung und den Circfel …, #9
De Eylanden en Vastelanded van Westindien, #14
Florida [1671], #17
Florida [1904], #40
Florida et Apalche, #12
Florida lands at low prices…, #44
Floridae americae provinciae…#11
Ft. Lauderdale’s beach from the air, about 1925], #45
Fragment du planisphére envoyé de Lisbonne … #3
Geographical grammar, #20
Geographical, statistical, and historical map of Florida, #27, #28
Geography anatomiz’d: or, The geographical grammar…, #20
Globus-Karte des Leonardo da Vinci…, #5
[Governor Broward overseeing dredge construction…], #41
Grand voyages, #11
Historical map of Florida, #46
Historical maps of the discovery of America, #5, 6, 7
Die historischen karten zur Entdeckung Amerikas, #5, 6, 7
Insvlæ Americanæ in Oceano Septentrionali cum terries adiacentibus, #15
Ioanus Wecheli, #11
Karte des Mexikanischen Golfes, #6
La Florida, #10
Map of Florida [Searcy], #30
Map of Florida [Vignoles], #29
Map of Florida [Williams], #31
A map of the Coast of East Florida, from the River St. John, Southward…, #24
Map of the seat of war in Florida, #32
Mappa geographica regionem Mexicanam et Floridam terrasque adjacentes…, #19
[Middle River] Township No. 49…, #36
Les Monuments de la geographie, #3
Napoleon Bonaparte Broward, 1857-1910, Governor of Florida…, #43
New France, #1
[New River] Township No. 50…, #35
[North New River Canal Lock], #42
Novae insulae XXVI nova tabula, #8
Observations upon the Floridas, #29
The oldest map of the New World, #2
Partie de la Mer du Nord où fe trouvent les grandes et petites isles Antilles…, #22
Pensacola, Fla.: county seat of Escambia County 1885, #39
Peruuiae avriferæ regionis typus, #10
Planiglobii terrestris cum utroq hemisphæ cælesti generalis exhibitio…, #18
[Portuguese chart, c. 1520], #7
Sketch of the Southern part of Florida…, #33
Special chart of Cape Florida belonging to the 13th Section, #21
Stabilimenti de francesci, inglesi, e spagnuoli nelle isole Antille, #25
The State of Florida, #34
Theatrvm Orbis Terrarvm, #10, 13, 15
Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, #23
Travels through North and South Carolina, East and West Florida…, #24
Universalis cosmographia secundum Ptholomae…, #4
Wecheli, Ioanus, SEE: Ioanus Wecheli
Die Weltkarte des Ptolemäus, #1

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